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城市绿地信息提取及景观格局分析

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城市绿信息提取及景观格局分析


摘 要:城市绿地是城市中一种特殊的生态系统,它是城市可持续发展的重要基础之一,科学合理的城市绿地景观布局能够提升城市的生态系统功能,为城市的健康、持续发展提供有利的保障。本文以2011年4月21日全光谱TM影像作为信息源,利用Envi、ArcMap和Fragstats 等软件,对西安市三环以内范围进行几何校正、辐射校正、融合、绿地景观提取及监督分类等步骤,完成对西安城市绿地信息的提取及制图。在此基础上,利用Fragstats和Excel等软件对城市绿地的构成、景观多样性指数、破碎化指数、分维数、整体景观格局指数等进行分析,并总结得出西安城市绿地景观格局存在的问题,此将为西安城市绿地空间结构与格局的完善提供科学的依据。本文主要结论:
(1)西安市城市绿地景观构成中占有最大面积的是附属绿地,占到整个西安三环以内面积17.85%。公园绿地和防护绿地都在接近6%的水平。生产绿地最少,仅占有1.16%.
(2)西安市城市绿地中,景观多样性指数最高为66.0046,是附属绿地。多样性指数相对较低的是防护绿地,为45.4127。公园绿地次之为36.000.景观多样性最贫乏的是生产绿地,仅有13.0357。
(3)西安城市绿地景观斑块破碎化总体上上与多样性成反比。最高的是附属绿地,而最低的是生产绿地。
(4)西安市城市绿地景观的分维数差异不是很大,总体,斑块都较规则,斑块形状较为简单所受到人为的干扰因素很大。
(5)西安市防护绿地的聚集度并不理想。需要在今后的工作中进一步加强聚集度,实现其防护的功效。

关键词:城市绿地;景观格局;格局指数;西安


ABSTRACT:The city green space is a special ecological system in the city, it is one of the important foundation of the city sustainable development, scientific and reasonable layout of city green space landscape can improve the function of ecological system of the city, to provide guarantee for the healthy, sustainable development of city. In April 21, 2011 the full spectrum of TM image as the source of information, using Envi, ArcMap and Fragstats software, geometric correction, radiometric correction, fusion, green landscape extraction and classification steps of Xi'an City within range, complete extraction and mapping of Xi'an city green space information. On this basis, the use of Fragstats analysis and Excel software for the city space form, landscape diversity index, fragmentation index, fractal dimension, the overall landscape pattern index, and summarizes existing greenbelt landscape spatial pattern of Xi'an city problems, this will improve the structure and pattern of green space in Xi'an city and provide scientific basis for. The main conclusions of this paper:
(1)the largest area of Xi'an city urban green space landscape is attached green space, accounted for within the Xi'an Sanhuan area 17.85%. Park green space and protective greenbelt are close to 6% level. The production of green space at least, only accounted for 1.16%.
(2)Xi'an city green land, landscape diversity index was the highest for the 66.0046, is attached green space. The diversity index is relatively low in protective greenbelt, 45.4127. Park green space time is 36.000. landscape diversity is the lack of space, only 13.0357.
(3) Xi'an city landscape fragmentation and diversity is inversely proportional to the overall. The highest is attached green space, and the lowest is the production of green space.
(4) the fractal dimension difference of Xi'an city landscape is not very big, overall, plaque is regular, the patch shape is simple by the man-made factors greatly disturbed.
(5) degree of aggregation in Xi'an city green space protection is not ideal. We need to further strengthen the degree of aggregation in the future work, to achieve its protective efficacy.
Key Words:urban green space; landscape pattern; landscape index; Xi'an
  
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